wiki:Tutorials/Wireless/mmwavePaamBasics

IBM 28GHz PAAM Basics

Description

In this tutorial, we demonstrate the basic use of the IBM 28 GHz phased array antenna modules (PAAMs) with USRP N310 software-defined radios (SDRs) in the COSMOS Sandboxes (sb1, sb2).

The following paper describes the integration of the IBM 28 GHz PAAMs (beta-version) with USRP SDRs in the COSMOS testbed. We would appreciate it if you cite this paper when publishing results obtained using the PAAMs deployed in COSMOS.

  • T. Chen, P. Maddala, P. Skrimponis, J. Kolodziejski, X. Gu, A. Paidimarri, S. Rangan, G. Zussman, and I. Seskar, “Programmable and open-access millimeter-wave radios in the PAWR COSMOS testbed,” in Proc. ACM Mobi Com’21 Workshop on Wireless Network Testbeds, Experimental evaluation & CHaracterization (WiNTECH’21), 2021.
  • X. Gu, A. Paidimarri, B. Sadhu, C. Baks, S. Lukashov, M. Yeck, Y. Kwark, T. Chen, G. Zussman, I. Seskar, and A. Valdes-Garcia, "Development of a compact 28-GHz software-defined phased array for a city-scale wireless research testbed," in Proc. IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IMS’21), 2021.

Author: Tingjun Chen, Duke University (tingjun.chen [at] duke [dot] edu)

Last updated: Apr. 10, 2022

Acknowledgements

This work is collaboration with IBM. We thank Xiaoxiong Gu, Arun Paidimarri, Bodhisatwa Sadhu, and Alberto Valdes-Garcia for their contributions and support. More detailed information about the IBM 28 GHz PAAM can be found in the following references:

  • B. Sadhu, Y. Tousi, J. Hallin, S. Sahl, S. K. Reynolds, O. Renstrom, K. Sjogren, O. Haapalahti, N. Mazor, B. Bokinge, G. Weibull, H. Bengtsson, A. Carlinger, E. Westesson, J. Thillberg, L. Rexberg, M. Yeck, X. Gu, M. Ferriss, D. Liu, D. Friedman, A. Valdes-Garcia, "A 28-GHz 32-element TRX phased-array IC with concurrent dual-polarized operation and orthogonal phase and gain control for 5G communications," IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 52, no. 12, pp. 3373-3391, 2017.

Prerequisites

In order to access a COSMOS sandbox, create a reservation and have it approved by the reservation service. Access to the resources is granted after the reservation is confirmed. Please follow the process shown on the COSMOS getting started page to get started.

Resources Required

In this tutorial we will use the following hardware resources, which are also shown in the figure below.

  • 2 USRP N310 SDRs (sdr1-in1 and sdr1-in2 in SB1, sdr1-s1-lg1 and sdr1-md1 in SB2)
  • 2 IBM 28GHz PAAMs (rfdev4-in1 and rfdev4-in2 in SB1, rfdev2-1 and rfdev2-2 in SB2 )
  • 1 Server (srv1-lg1)

The current hardware connection in SB1 as shown in this diagram

  • sdr1-in1 RF2 TX/RX — rfdev4-in1 all ICs/TX/H, sdr1-in1 RF2 RX2 — rfdev4-in1 all ICs/RX/H
  • sdr1-in1 RF3 TX/RX — rfdev4-in1 all ICs/TX/V, sdr1-in1 RF3 RX2 — rfdev4-in1 all ICs/RX/V
  • sdr1-in2 RF2 TX/RX — rfdev4-in2 all ICs/TX/H, sdr1-in2 RF2 RX2 — rfdev4-in2 all ICs/RX/H
  • sdr1-in2 RF3 TX/RX — rfdev4-in2 all ICs/TX/V, sdr1-in2 RF2 RX2 — rfdev4-in2 all ICs/RX/V

The current hardware connection in SB2:

  • sdr1-s1-lg1 RF2 TX/RX — rfdev2-1 IC1/TX/H, sdr1-s1-lg1 RF2 RX2 — rfdev2-1 IC2/RX/H
  • sdr1-md1 RF2 TX/RX — rfdev2-2 IC1/TX/H, sdr1-md1 RF2 RX2 — rfdev2-2 IC2/RX/H

Please note that combined IC IO are being used in SB1, and split IC IO in SB2.

Tutorial Setup

Follow the steps below to gain access to the sandbox console and set up nodes with appropriate images.

  1. If you don't have one already, sign up for a COSMOS account
  2. Create a resource reservation on COSMOS SB1 or SB2
  3. Login into sandbox console (console.sb1.cosmos-lab.org or console.sb2.cosmos-lab.org) with two SSH sessions.
  4. Make sure all the nodes and devices used in the experiment are turned off. Use the first command for SB1 and the second command for SB2 (note the difference in the device names)
    omf tell -a offh -t sdr1-in1,sdr1-in2,rfdev4-in1,rfdev4-in2,srv1-lg1
    
    omf tell -a offh -t sdr1-s1-lg1,sdr1-md1,rfdev2-1,rfdev2-2,srv1-lg1
    
  5. Use the paam28GHz-tutorial-cosmos.ndz node image with Ubuntu 18.04, UHD 3.15, gnuradio 3.8, and a grc example used in this tutorial. Load paam28GHz-tutorial-cosmos.ndz on the server.
    omf load -i paam28GHz-tutorial-cosmos.ndz -t srv1-lg1
    
  6. Turn all the required resources on and check the status of all the resources. Use the following commands for SB1 and SB2.
    omf tell -a on -t sdr1-in1,sdr1-in2,rfdev4-in1,rfdev4-in2,srv1-lg1
    
    omf tell -a on -t sdr1-s1-lg1,sdr1-md1,rfdev2-1,rfdev2-2,srv1-lg1
    
    omf stat -t all
    
  7. ssh to the server with option -Y for using GUI with gnuradio.
    ssh -Y root@srv1-lg1
    

Experiment Execution

Find and prepare USRPs

  • Upon logging into the server, run eth_config.sh script. This sets up the 10G data interfaces eno1, eno2. After running the script, you should see that the data interfaces have the appropriate IP addresses assigned, as per the tables for SB1 and SB2.

SB1

root@srv1-lg1:~# ./eth_config.sh
root@srv1-lg1:~# ifconfig eno1
eno1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 9000
        inet 10.38.1.1  netmask 255.255.0.0  broadcast 10.38.255.255
        inet6 fe80::1e34:daff:fe42:c3c  prefixlen 64  scopeid 0x20<link>
        ether 1c:34:da:42:0c:3c  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 712  bytes 74814 (74.8 KB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 595  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 42  bytes 9132 (9.1 KB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0
root@srv1-lg1:~# ifconfig eno2
eno2: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 9000
        inet 10.39.1.1  netmask 255.255.0.0  broadcast 10.39.255.255
        inet6 fe80::1e34:daff:fe42:c3d  prefixlen 64  scopeid 0x20<link>
        ether 1c:34:da:42:0c:3d  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 643  bytes 51548 (51.5 KB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 599  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 42  bytes 9132 (9.1 KB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

SB2

root@srv1-lg1:~# ./eth_config.sh
root@srv1-lg1:~# ifconfig eno1
eno1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 9000
        inet 10.117.1.1  netmask 255.255.0.0  broadcast 10.117.255.255
        inet6 fe80::1e34:daff:fe42:d4c  prefixlen 64  scopeid 0x20<link>
        ether 1c:34:da:42:0d:4c  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 254  bytes 20924 (20.9 KB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 185  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 25  bytes 4642 (4.6 KB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0
root@srv1-lg1:~# ifconfig eno2
eno2: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 9000
        inet 10.118.1.1  netmask 255.255.0.0  broadcast 10.118.255.255
        inet6 fe80::1e34:daff:fe42:d4d  prefixlen 64  scopeid 0x20<link>
        ether 1c:34:da:42:0d:4d  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 218  bytes 22274 (22.2 KB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 186  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 25  bytes 4642 (4.6 KB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0
  • Run und_find_devices to make sure that both USRP N310s can be reached:

SB1

root@srv1-lg1:~# uhd_find_devices
[INFO] [UHD] linux; GNU C++ version 7.5.0; Boost_106501; UHD_3.15.0.0-release
--------------------------------------------------
-- UHD Device 0
--------------------------------------------------
Device Address:
    serial: 3176DF5
    addr: 10.38.2.1
    claimed: False
    mgmt_addr: 10.37.2.1
    mgmt_addr: 10.38.2.1
    mgmt_addr: 10.39.2.1
    product: n310
    type: n3xx
--------------------------------------------------
-- UHD Device 1
--------------------------------------------------
Device Address:
    serial: 3196937
    addr: 10.38.3.1
    claimed: False
    mgmt_addr: 10.37.3.1
    mgmt_addr: 10.38.3.1
    mgmt_addr: 10.39.3.1
    product: n310
    type: n3xx

SB2

   root@srv1-lg1:~# uhd_find_devices
   [INFO] [UHD] linux; GNU C++ version 7.5.0; Boost_106501; UHD_3.15.0.HEAD-0-gaea0e2de
   --------------------------------------------------
   -- UHD Device 0
   --------------------------------------------------
   Device Address:
       serial: 315A35A
       addr: 10.117.2.1
       claimed: False
       mgmt_addr: 10.116.2.1
       mgmt_addr: 10.117.2.1
       mgmt_addr: 10.118.2.1
       product: n310
       type: n3xx
   --------------------------------------------------
   -- UHD Device 1
   --------------------------------------------------
   Device Address:
       serial: 3176DF7
       addr: 10.117.3.1
       claimed: False
       mgmt_addr: 10.116.3.1
       mgmt_addr: 10.117.3.1
       mgmt_addr: 10.118.3.1
       product: n310
       type: n3xx

Configure IBM 28GHz PAAM

COSMOS uses a RESTful service for IBM PAAM management The service can be used for

  • Dynamic array management - where the user connects to the antenna using connect command, dynamically steers the antenna during the experiment using steer command, and disconnects once the experiment is done.
  • Static array management - where the user can connect, steer and disconnect using a single command, configure

Details and examples for the above are provided at the array management page. For this experiment, we use static array management commands as shown below. First, start PAAM #1 (rfdev4-in1) in RX mode with V-polarization using 16 antenna elements on all the ICs, and configure the RX beamforming direction to be in the broadside (0,0). Check the current consumption on 2v7_0,1,2,3 to make sure all the ICs have been successfully initialized.

root@console:~# curl "http://am1.orbit-lab.org:5054/array_mgmt/configure?dev_name=rfdev4-in1.sb1.cosmos-lab.org&ics=all&num_elements=16&txrx=rx&pol=v&theta=0&phi=0"
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<response status="OK">
  <action service="array_mgmt" name="configure" ipaddr="10.37.7.1">
    <step name="open" duration="3.599997"/>
    <step name="initializaition" duration="0.071123"/>
    <step name="enabling" duration="0.016817"/>
    <step name="steering" duration="0.007705"/>
    <state PAAM_ID="0x36" LO_switch="PLL" if_sw1="0x0" if_sw2="0x0" if_sw3="0x0" if_sw4="0x0"/>
    <adc>
      <conv index="0" name="1v2" tADC="120" tVolt="0.293" tCurr="0.147"/>
      <conv index="1" name="1v5" tADC="334" tVolt="0.816" tCurr="1.632"/>
      <conv index="2" name="1v8" tADC="24" tVolt="0.059" tCurr="0.029"/>
      <conv index="3" name="2v7_0" tADC="163" tVolt="0.398" tCurr="0.797"/>
      <conv index="4" name="2v7_1" tADC="206" tVolt="0.503" tCurr="1.007"/>
      <conv index="5" name="2v7_2" tADC="220" tVolt="0.538" tCurr="1.075"/>
      <conv index="6" name="2v7_3" tADC="180" tVolt="0.440" tCurr="0.880"/>
      <conv index="7" name="3v3_pll" tADC="408" tVolt="0.997" tCurr="0.499"/>
      <conv index="8" name="5v_uzed" tADC="206" tVolt="0.503" tCurr="0.503"/>
      <conv index="9" name="12v" tADC="244" tVolt="0.596" tCurr="1.988"/>
      <conv index="10" name="0V" tADC="0" tVolt="0.000"/>
      <conv index="11" name="1V8" tADC="737" tVolt="1.801"/>
    </adc>
    <step name="status" duration="0.020882"/>
    <step name="close" duration="0.100221"/>
  </action>
</response>

Similarly, start PAAM #2 (rfdev4-in2) in TX mode with V-polarization using 16 antenna elements on all the ICs, and configure the TX beamforming direction to be in the broadside (0,0). Check the current consumption to make sure the ICs have been successfully initialized.

root@console:~# curl "http://am1.orbit-lab.org:5054/array_mgmt/configure?dev_name=rfdev4-in2.sb1.cosmos-lab.org&ics=all&num_elements=16&txrx=tx&pol=v&theta=0&phi=0"
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<response status="OK">
  <action service="array_mgmt" name="configure" ipaddr="10.37.7.2">
    <step name="open" duration="3.558891"/>
    <step name="initializaition" duration="0.072244"/>
    <step name="enabling" duration="0.018709"/>
    <step name="steering" duration="0.008254"/>
    <state PAAM_ID="0x30" LO_switch="PLL" if_sw1="0x0" if_sw2="0x0" if_sw3="0x0" if_sw4="0x0"/>
    <adc>
      <conv index="0" name="1v2" tADC="125" tVolt="0.305" tCurr="0.153"/>
      <conv index="1" name="1v5" tADC="331" tVolt="0.809" tCurr="1.618"/>
      <conv index="2" name="1v8" tADC="22" tVolt="0.054" tCurr="0.027"/>
      <conv index="3" name="2v7_0" tADC="255" tVolt="0.623" tCurr="1.246"/>
      <conv index="4" name="2v7_1" tADC="250" tVolt="0.611" tCurr="1.222"/>
      <conv index="5" name="2v7_2" tADC="266" tVolt="0.650" tCurr="1.300"/>
      <conv index="6" name="2v7_3" tADC="264" tVolt="0.645" tCurr="1.290"/>
      <conv index="7" name="3v3_pll" tADC="410" tVolt="1.002" tCurr="0.501"/>
      <conv index="8" name="5v_uzed" tADC="215" tVolt="0.525" tCurr="0.525"/>
      <conv index="9" name="12v" tADC="300" tVolt="0.733" tCurr="2.444"/>
      <conv index="10" name="0V" tADC="0" tVolt="0.000"/>
      <conv index="11" name="1V8" tADC="734" tVolt="1.794"/>
    </adc>
    <step name="status" duration="0.021005"/>
    <step name="close" duration="0.100240"/>
  </action>
</response>

If you are on SB2, the commands are:
PAAM #1 (rfdev2-1.sb2.cosmos-lab.org)

root@console:~# curl "http://am1.orbit-lab.org:5054/array_mgmt/configure?dev_name=rfdev2-1.sb2.cosmos-lab.org&ics=1&num_elements=4&txrx=tx&pol=h&theta=0&phi=0"

PAAM #2 (rfdev2-2.sb2.cosmos-lab.org)

root@console:~# curl "http://am1.orbit-lab.org:5054/array_mgmt/configure?dev_name=rfdev2-2.sb2.cosmos-lab.org&ics=2&num_elements=4&txrx=rx&pol=h&theta=0&phi=0"

Run the experiment

  • On srv1-lg1, start gnuradio companion and open the example experiment that establishes a single tone transmission. Use the file that is appropriate for the domain (SB1 or SB2).
    root@srv1-lg1:~# gnuradio-companion example_paam_tone_sb1.grc 
    
  • For running the experiment on SB1, configure the USRP sink (TX) with sdr1-in2 ("mgmt_addr=10.37.6.2,addr=10.38.6.2") and the USRP source (RX) with sdr1-in1("mgmt_addr=10.37.6.1,addr=10.37.6.2"). For SB2, configure the USRP sink (TX) with sdr1-s1-lg1 ("mgmt_addr=10.116.2.1,addr=10.117.2.1") and the USRP source (RX) with sdr1-md1 ("mgmt_addr=10.116.3.1,addr=10.117.3.1"). Set the carrier frequency to 3GHz (3e9) and the subdev to be "B:1" (RF3) (For SB2, use "B:0", RF2) on both TX and RX. In this example flowgraph, the sampling rate and the tone frequency are set to be 2.5MHz (2.5e6) and 1MHz (1e6), respectively.
mmWave PAAM basics grc flowgraph

Observe the results

Figure below shows the frequency response of the received tone at 1MHz offset.

Finish the experiments

When the experiments are completed, make sure to clean up and turn off the PAAMs.

For SB1:

root@console:~# curl "http://am1.orbit-lab.org:5054/array_mgmt/cleanup?dev_name=rfdev4-in1.sb1.cosmos-lab.org"
root@console:~# omf tell -a offh -t rfdev4-in1.sb1.cosmos-lab.org
root@console:~# curl "http://am1.orbit-lab.org:5054/array_mgmt/cleanup?dev_name=rfdev4-in2.sb1.cosmos-lab.org"
root@console:~# omf tell -a offh -t rfdev4-in2.sb1.cosmos-lab.org


For SB2:

root@console:~# curl "http://am1.orbit-lab.org:5054/array_mgmt/cleanup?dev_name=rfdev2-1.sb2.cosmos-lab.org"
root@console:~# omf tell -a offh -t rfdev2-1.sb2.cosmos-lab.org
root@console:~# curl "http://am1.orbit-lab.org:5054/array_mgmt/cleanup?dev_name=rfdev2-2.sb2.cosmos-lab.org"
root@console:~# omf tell -a offh -t rfdev2-2.sb2.cosmos-lab.org
Last modified 6 months ago Last modified on Jun 14, 2022, 6:40:12 PM

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